Title: Indonesia’s Nickel Downstreaming Policy Faces Challenges as Tesla Opts for Alternative EV Battery Source
The decision by Tesla to establish its electric vehicle (EV) car manufacturing in Malaysia instead of Indonesia has dealt a blow to the latter’s efforts to attract investments for building a comprehensive EV supply chain ecosystem. Indonesia’s ambitious nickel downstreaming policies, aimed at leveraging its vast nickel reserves and ore production to add value through processing, stand to be affected. These policies intend to produce higher-grade nickel intermediates that are crucial components in the production of stainless steel and nickel cobalt manganese (NCM)-based EV batteries.
Evaluating the Impact of Tesla’s Shift to Alternative Battery Sources:
Indonesia’s nickel industry now faces uncertainties due to a recent trend among major EV manufacturers, including Tesla, to transition from using nickel to a mineral combination known as lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP) as the primary source for EV batteries. LFP batteries offer advantages in terms of availability and cost-effectiveness but also pose certain drawbacks compared to NCM batteries. These drawbacks include lower driving range and a decreased recycling value, which may lead to lower demand for NCM batteries.
Challenges Faced by Indonesia’s Nickel Downstreaming Policy:
The successful implementation of Indonesia’s nickel downstreaming policy is contingent upon addressing significant challenges. Firstly, there is a need to mitigate environmental damage resulting from deforestation for mining sites, community disruptions, and the inadequate management of toxic mining waste. Additionally, the industry heavily relies on coal for the electricity required by smelting plants.
Secondly, concerns arise regarding Indonesia’s over-reliance on China for both investment and market access. Chinese companies predominantly dominate nearly 90% of the country’s nickel processing facilities. However, the growing presence of South Korean conglomerates and Taiwan’s Foxconn has somewhat tempered China’s dominance.
Lastly, confusion arises from the dual oversight of the industry by two different ministries: the Ministry of Energy, responsible for mining activities, and the Ministry of Industry, responsible for monitoring the downstream ore processing phase. Coordinating and aligning these ministries’ objectives is necessary for the effective implementation of Indonesia’s downstreaming policy.
Policy Considerations for Indonesia’s Future:
Amid the potential shift towards LFP batteries, Indonesia should consider recalibrating its capacity and investments in class 1 and class 2 nickel processing. This would involve focusing more on developing lower-grade nickel pig iron for stainless steel manufacturing.
Additionally, Indonesia should contemplate transitioning from a rigid nickel export ban to a more flexible Domestic Market Obligation (DMO) scheme, similar to those applied to coal and palm oil. Implementing a familiar scheme could facilitate smoother policy implementation. Over time, the government could consider providing long-term investors with guarantees regarding raw ore supply and pricing bands.
Furthermore, Indonesia needs to prioritize downstream policies in sectors that have a broader impact on small businesses and job creation. This is crucial for leveraging the country’s demographic dividend, a window of opportunity that will close by 2040.
Indonesia’s nickel downstreaming policy, while initially successful, faces challenges due to Tesla’s decision to opt for alternative EV battery sources. The country must navigate the environmental, market access, and regulatory concerns surrounding its nickel industry to ensure sustainable growth. By recalibrating its focus, adopting flexible market obligations, and prioritizing downstream policies, Indonesia can effectively utilize its nickel reserves and leverage its demographic dividend for long-term economic benefits.